» Programming

## XOR (Exclusive Or) in Python

This article explains XOR (Exclusive Or) – what it is, why it’s used, and how to implement it in the Python programming language. What is XOR / Exclusive OR XOR – Exclusive Or – is a logical operation commonly used in computer programming. Logically, an XOR condition is true only if the supplied arguments differ. XOR compares two inputs and outputs, true or false, only if they are different. Those inputs are usually true/false boolean values or the result of a logical operation that returns a boolean value. For example, XOR on two values – 1 and 1 is false – they do not differ. XOR on two values … Read more

» Programming

## Calculating the Absolute Value in JavaScript with Math.abs()

This article will explain what absolute values are, how they are used, and how the JavaScript Math.abs() function can be used to calculate the absolute value of a number. What is the ‘Absolute Value’ of a Number? The absolute value of a number is that number’s value – without any regard to its sign. A numbers sign determines whether it is positive or negative – it’s the – symbol before a negative number. So, the absolute value of a number is never negative. Consider the absolute value of a number that numbers distance from 0. The absolute value of … Read more

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## A Trick for Validating JSON in PHP

Here’s a quick trick for validating JSON in PHP – with a reusable function, you can copy and paste it into your own project. JSON has pretty much become the standard format for transferring data between applications on the internet. So if you’re building an API to be consumed by others or just building a backend for your app, you’ll be sending and receiving a lot of JSON data. But, you can never trust the request – the data coming into your application. Users enter bad data. Hackers deliberately enter bad … Read more

Categories PHP

» Programming

## Capitalize the First Letter of Each Word in a String [JavaScript]

This short article shows you how to capitalize the first letter in a string or all of the words in a string (title case) in the javascript programming language. Capitalizing the first letter in a string is useful if you’re capitalizing a single word or a whole sentence which you wish to display in a grammatically correct manner. Converting a string to title case – that’s where every word is capitalized in a string with multiple words – is useful for formatting text for use in an article … Read more

» Programming

## Python: View Documentation With the help() Function

This short article will show you how to use the Python help() function to view the documentation (Docstring) for a Python module, class, or function. Documenting Your Python Code with Docstrings You can document your Python code with a special string called a docstring. We’ve got a whole article on that here. The short version of it is this: put a triple quoted string immediately after declaring a function, class, or module in Python: “”” Just like this “”” …and you can later read from it using the help() … Read more

» Programming

## How to Check if an Array is Empty in JavaScript [Examples]

This quick tutorial will show you how to check whether an array is empty in the JavaScript programming language. What is an Array? An array is a type of variable that holds a collection of zero or more values. In JavaScript, arrays are ordered – each value in the array has a position (called the index) in the array, which is used to access it. Indexes start counting at 0, so the first value in an array is at index 0. Declaring an Array in JavaScript The quickest way to … Read more

» Programming

## What are Python Docstrings and How Are They Used?

This tutorial will explain what docstrings are in the Python programming language and how they can be used. What is a Docstring in Python? A docstring is a string literal that is used to document your code. A string literal is a sequence of characters 0 or more characters in length, which is to be treated as a single entity – i.e., it’s a string variable of any length. A docstring appears after the definition of a module, class, method, or function and should explain the purpose of the object it … Read more

» Programming

## How to Reset/Clear/Empty an Array in JavaScript

This quick article will show you the right way to reset/clear/empty an array in the JavaScript programming language. The Right Way to Reset/Clear/Empty an Array – Set the length to 0 This is the best way to reset/clear/empty an array in JavaScript. It is unambiguous and will affect both the variable containing the array and any variables referencing the array. var myArray = [1, 2, 3, 4]; myArray.length = 0; Above, an array is declared and then emptied by setting the array’s length property to 0. The Wrong Way – Re-declare the … Read more

» Programming

## How to Use the PHP empty() Function

This easy tutorial will show you how to use the PHP empty() function to check whether a variable can be considered empty and show some code examples. What Is Empty? A variable is considered empty in PHP if its value equates to FALSE or the variable does not exist. This means that the following are considered empty: An empty string (“”) The number zero (0) In any form (0.0000) Including strings containing only a 0 character (“0”) Boolean FALSE NULL An undeclared variable Empty arrays The empty() function is different from the isset() function. The latter checks only whether … Read more

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» Programming

## C++ vs Python – Which Programming Language to Learn in 2022?

Here’s a quick primer on the C++ and Python Programming languages to help the beginner or intermediate coders decide which to learn. What is C++? C++ is a compiled general-purpose programming language. It’s an extension of the C programming language – using similar syntax but adding object-oriented programming features like classes, objects, and additional expressions. As C++ is compiled, it is converted to machine language prior to being executed. This means it runs much faster than interpreted languages like Python and means that it has fewer resource overheads, it’s perfect for running on … Read more