This tutorial will show you how to use exponents (e.g., calculating the square root of a number) in Python, with some code examples.

This tutorial covers several ways to calculate exponents in Python 3.

## Using ** (Power Operator)

The ****** mathematical operator (known as the power operator) will calculate an exponent, raising the number on the **left** to the power of the number on the **right** of the operator:

4**5 # Will evaluate 4*4*4*4*4 and return the integer value 1024

Note that:

- You will receive a
**ZeroDivisionError**if you try to raise 0 (zero) to a negative power - Raising a negative number to a fractional power will result in a complex number
- If floating-point (non-integer) numbers are supplied, the result will be a floating-point number

## Using pow(x, y)

The built-in *pow()* function will do the same – the result will be identical – it just uses a function to calculate the result rather than a mathematical operator:

pow(4, 5) # Will also return 1024, the same as above

Note that:

- Everything that applies to the
******operator applies to the*pow()*function

## Using math.pow()

The *math* library also includes a *pow()* function which does the same thing – but with slightly different behavior and results:

import math math.pow(4, 5) # Returns 1024 - but as a floating point number, not an integer

Note that:

- While the number returned is the same as the
******operator and the built-in*pow()*function, the*number type*is different.*math.pow()*converts the numbers passed to it to floating-point numbers –**and always returns its answer as a floating-point number** - Both
**math.pow(1.0,**and*num*)**math.pow(num, 0.0)**always return 1.0 when using*math.pow()*- This occurs even when
*num*is**zero**or**NaN**(Not a Number)

- This occurs even when
*math.pow()*throws a**ValueError**exception when:- The first argument is negative
- The second argument is not an integer

## Square Numbers

**‘Squaring’ a number is simply raising it to a power (exponent) of 2.**

So, **5 squared** would be calculated as follows using the above methods:

5**2 pow(5, 2) math.pow(5, 2)

All of the above will return the number **25**.